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Malcolm Forster


个人简介 Personal profile

Malcolm R. FORSTER, Distinguished Professor, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

Email: mforster@wisc.edu

Address:School of Philosophy, West Main Building,  Guang Hua Tower, No. 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 

教育和工作经历 Education and Work Experience

教育经历 Education

· PhD in Philosophy, University of Western Ontario, October 28, 1984.

· MSc in Applied Mathematics, University of Otago, May 1979.

· Postgraduate Diploma in Arts in Philosophy, with credit, University of Otago, May 22, 1979.

· BSc, Mathematics, University of Otago, May 1975.

工作经历 Work Experience

·   Distinguished Professor, Fudan University, Shanghai, China, Sept. 2017 to present.

·   Full Professor, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Sept. 1996 to May 2017.

·   Visiting Professor, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, Sept. 2010 to Aug. 2011.

·   Visiting Fellow, Pittsburgh Center for the Philosophy of Science, Spring 2006.

·   Visitor, working with Gigerenzer’s group, Max Planck Institute, Berlin, Germany, occasionally during 2001-2.

·   Associate Professor, University of Wisconsin-Madison, from Sept. 1991 to Aug. 1996.

·   Assistant Professor, University of Wisconsin-Madison, from Sept. 1987 to Aug. 1991.

·   Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia, Jan. 1986 to June 1987. I did research with Prof. Peter Finch on the foundations of quantum mechanics.

·   Teaching Assistant, and Lecturer, University of Western Ontario, Canada, Jan. 1980 to May 1984.  (I was a TA for critical thinking and logic courses and taught my own course in Introduction to Philosophy.)

·   Copy Assistant for Philosophy of Science journal from 1983 to 1985.

·   UNESCO/Poland “Copernicus” Research Fellowship-History of Astronomy, in the History of Science at the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw. Feb. 1979-Jan. 1980.  I worked with Jerzy Dobrzicky on Copernicus’s Commentariolus at the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw.

社会兼职  Professional Memberships, Service

·   Program Committee member for the Biennial Meetings of the Philosophy of Science Association in San Diego, 2012 (PSA 2012).

·   Panelist for the National Science Foundation, three-year term, 2007-2010.

·   Nominating Committee, Philosophy of Science Association, 2005-2007.

·   Member of the APA Central Division 2006 program committee. 

·   Newsletter Editor for the Philosophy of Science Association, 1999 to 2008.

·   Member of the Philosophy of Science Association Program Committee for PSA 2002, and again for PSA 2012.

·   Co-organizer of a conference on “Methods for Model Selection” held at the University of Indiana, August 3 - 4, 1997, and co-editor of the proceedings in a special issue of the Journal of Mathematical Psychology, March 2000.

·   Referee for Philosophical Psychology, Journal of Philosophical Logic, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, Foundations of Science, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, Synthèse, Noûs, National Science Foundation, Philosophy of Science, Journal of Mathematical Psychology, Journal of Economic Methodology, Erkenntnis, and book proposals/manuscripts for Oxford University Press and Cambridge University Press.

·   Member of the American Philosophical Association, from 1987.  Member of the Philosophy of Science Association, from 1985, British Society for the Philosophy of Science, from 1994.

·   Editorial Assistant for Philosophy of Science, Sept. 1983 to Sept. 1984. 

研究方向 Research Interests

AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION (AOS):

General Philosophy of Science, Foundations of Statistics, Formal Epistemology (induction, Bayesianism, theories of evidence), History of Philosophy of Science (William Whewell, J. S. Mill, Popper, Kuhn, Lakatos), Philosophy of Physics, Foundations of Quantum Mechanics, Metaphysics (Causality), Philosophy of Intelligence, Neurobiology.

AREAS OF COMPETENCE (AOC):

History of Science, Logic, Epistemology, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Decision, Rational Choice and Game theory, Cognitive Science, Philosophy of Biology.

主要学术成果 Major Publications

Edited Volumes

(1)Prasanta S. Bandyopadhyay and Malcolm Forster (eds.) (2011) Handbook of Philosophy of Science Volume 7, Philosophy of Statistics. Elsevier. (1,229 pages);

(2)In Jae Myung, M. Forster, and Michael W. Browne (2000): Special Issue on Model Selection, Journal of Mathematical Psychology, March 2000. “Guest Editors' Introduction”;

Published Articles

(1)M. Forster, G. Raskutti, R. Stern and N. Weinberger (2018): “The Frugal Inference of Causal Relations”, the British Journal for the Philosophy of Science. 69, pp. 821–848.

(2)Benjamin, Daniel J. et al (2017): “Redefine statistical significance” Nature Human Behaviour.

(3)M. Forster (2014): “How the Quantum Sorites Phenomenon Strengthens Bell’s Argument” Physics Archives, http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.1598 .

(4)M. Forster (2014): “Review of Gábor Hofer-Szabó, Miklós Rédei, and László Szabó, The Principle of Common Cause, Cambridge University Press 2013.” Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.  http://ndpr.nd.edu/news/47288-the-principle-of-common-cause/ 

(5)M. Forster (2013): “Prediction”, Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Science, Second Edition, edited by Stathis Psillos and Martin Curd, pp. 449-457.

(6)M. Forster (2011): “The Debate between Whewell and Mill on the Nature of Scientific Induction”, in Stephan Hartmann (ed.), The Handbook of the History of Logic, Volume 10: Inductive Logic.  Elsevier Science, pp. 91-113.

(7)M. Forster and E. Sober (2011): “AIC Scores as Evidence – a Bayesian Interpretation” in Bandyopadhyay and Forster (2011), Handbook of Philosophy of Science, Volume 7, Philosophy of Statistics. Elsevier Science, pp. 535-549.

(8)M. Forster (2011): “Scientific Evidence”, in Steven French and and Juha Saatsi (eds.), Continuum Companion to the Philosophy of Science, Continuum Press.

(9)P. Bandyopadhyay and M. Forster (2011): “Philosophy of Statistics: An Introduction” in Bandyopadhyay and Forster (2011), pp. 1-50.

(10)Martignon, Laura, Oliver Vitouch, Masonori Takezawa, and M. R. Forster (2011): “Naive and yet enlightened: From natural frequencies to fast and frugal decision trees.” in Gerd Gigerenzer, Ralph Hertwig and Thorsten Pachur (Eds.), Heuristics: The Foundations of Adaptive Behavior.  Oxford University Press, pp. 134-150. Also in David Hardman and Laura Macchi (Eds.), Thinking: Psychological Perspective on Reasoning, Judgment, and Decision Making.  Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 189-211 (2003).

(11)M. Forster (2010): “The Miraculous Consilience of Quantum Mechanics”, in Ellery Eells and James Fetzer (eds.), Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science Volume 284, Probability and Science, Springer, pp. 201-228.

(12)M. Forster (2008): “Prediction”, Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Science, edited by Stathis Psillos and Martin Curd, pp. 405-413.

(13)M. Forster (2007), “A Philosopher’s Guide to Empirical Success,” Philosophy of Science, 74, 588-600.

(14)M. Forster (2006), “Counterexamples to a Likelihood Theory of Evidence,” Mind and Machines, 16: 319-338.

(15)M. Forster and E. Sober (2004): ‘Reply to Boik and Kruse,’ in Mark Taper and Subhash Lele (eds), Likelihood and Evidence, Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 181-190.

(16)M. Forster and E. Sober (2004): ‘Why Likelihood,’ in Mark Taper and Subhash Lele (eds), Likelihood and Evidence, Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 153-165.

(17)M. Forster and Alexey Kryukov (2003): “The Emergence of the Macro-World: A Study of Intertheory Relations in Classical and Quantum Mechanics.” Philosophy of Science 70: 1039-1051.

(18)M. Forster (2002): “Predictive Accuracy as an Achievable Goal of Science,” Philosophy of Science 69: S124-S134.

(19)M. Forster (2001): “The New Science of Simplicity” in A. Zellner, H. A. Keuzenkamp, and M. McAleer (eds.), Simplicity, Inference and Modelling, Cambridge University Press, 83-119. 

(20)M. Forster and Larry Shapiro (2000): “Prediction and Accommodation in Evolutionary Psychology,” Psychological Inquiry 11: 31-33.

(21)M. Forster (2000): “Key Concepts in Model Selection: Performance and Generalizability,” in a special issue of the Journal of Mathematical Psychology 44: 205-231.

(22)M. Forster (2000): “Hard Problems in the Philosophy of Science: Idealisation and Commensurability,” in R. Nola and H. Sankey (eds) After Popper, Kuhn, and Feyerabend, Kluwer, 231-250.

(23)M. Forster (1999) “Model Selection in Science: The Problem of Language Variance.” British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 50: 83-102.

(24)M. Forster (1999): “How Do Simple Rules ‘Fit to Reality’ in a Complex World?”  Minds and Machines 9: 543-564.

(25)M. Forster (1995): “Bayes and Bust: Simplicity as a Problem for a Probabilist’s Approach to Confirmation,” British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 46: 399-424.

(26)M. Forster (1995): “The Golfer’s Dilemma: A Reply to Kukla on Curve-Fitting,” British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 46: 348-360.

(27)M. Forster and Eric Saidel (1994): “Connectionism and the Fate of Folk Psychology,” Philosophical Psychology 7: 437-452.

(28)M. Forster (1994): “Non-Bayesian Foundations of Statistical Estimation, Prediction and the Ravens Example” Erkenntnis 40: 357-376.

(29)M. Forster and E. Sober (1994): “How to Tell when Simpler, More Unified, or Less Ad Hoc Theories will Provide More Accurate Predictions,” British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 45: 1-35. 

E. Sober and M. Forster (1992): “Lessons in Likelihood,” American Scientist 80: 212-213.

(30)M. Forster (1991): “Preconditions of Predication: From Qualia to Quantum Mechanics,” Topoi 10: 13-26.

(31)M. Forster (1988): “The Confirmation of Common Component Causes,” in A. Fine & J Leplin (eds.), PSA 1988, Vol. 1, pp.3-9.

(32)M. Forster (1988): “Sober’s Principle of Common Cause and the Problem of Comparing Incomplete Hypotheses,” Philosophy of Science 55, (1988), pp.538-59.

(33)M. Forster (1988): “Unification, Explanation, and the Composition of Causes in Newtonian Mechanics,” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 19: 55-101.

(34)M. Forster (1988): “Game Theory, Rationality, and Free Will,” in Cauchy, Venant, ed., Philosophy and Culture, Volume 3, Montreal De Montmorency, 1988, pp.82-6.

(35)M. Forster (1986): “Unification and Scientific Realism Revisited,” in A. Fine and P. Machamer (eds.) PSA 1986, Volume 1, pp. 394-405.

(36)M. Forster (1986) “Counterfactual Reasoning in the BellEPR Paradox,” Philosophy of Science 53: 133-144.

(37)M. Forster (1986): “Statistical Covariance as a Measure of Phylogenetic Relationship,” Cladistics 2: 297-317.

(38)M. Forster (1986) “Bell’s Paradox and Path Analysis,” in Weingartner P. and G. Dorn (eds.) Foundations of Physics, Vienna: Holder-Pichler-Tempsky, 1986, pp. 191-226.

Encyclopaedia Entries

(1)M. Reidy and M. Forster (2006): “William Whewell (1794-1866).” In Thomas Hockey (ed.) Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers, Kluwer Academic Publishers.

(2)M. Forster (1999): “Parsimony and Simplicity.” In Robert A. Wilson and F. C. Keil (eds), The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 627-629.

(3)M. Forster (1995): “The Curve-Fitting Problem,” in R. Audi (ed.), The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, Cambridge University Press., First and Second Edition.

Book Reviews

(1)M. Forster (2014): “Review of Gábor Hofer-Szabó, Miklós Rédei, and László Szabó, The Principle of Common Cause, Cambridge University Press 2013.” Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.  http://ndpr.nd.edu/news/47288-the-principle-of-common-cause/ 

(2)M. Forster (1990): “Review of Langley, P, H. A. Simon, G. L. Bradshaw, & J. M. Zytkow (1987). Scientific Discovery: Computational Explorations of the Creative Process.” Philosophy of Science 57: 336-338.

(3)M. Forster (1985): “Review of N. Cartwright (1983) How the Laws of Physics Lie,” Philosophy of Science 52: 478-479.

荣誉与获奖  Acdemic Achievements and Awards

·   Primary author of the most cited article ever published in the British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.

·   National Science Foundation (NSF) Professional Development grant to train Professor Alexey Kryukov in philosophy of physics during the academic year 2009-2010.

·   Fulbright award in Italy, April 1 to June 27, 2011, University of Siena.

·   Semester research (Fall 2005) UW-Madison Graduate School.

·   Vilas Associate, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1995 and 1996.

·   Sabbatical Awards, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1994–1995, 2001-2002, 2014-2015.

·   Faculty Development Grant, University of Wisconsin. “Recent Literature in Physics.” Fall, 1991.

·   NSF Grant: “A Whewellian Philosophy of Science” $40,000. 1989.

开设课程 Courses

UNDERGRADUATE TEACHING:

At the lower level: 

·   Critical Thinking (fallacies, elementary statistical and causal inference), with Baby Logic (categorical syllogisms, introduction to propositional logic)

·   Elementary Logic (propositional logic, predicate logic, plus some meta-logic).

·   Introduction to Philosophy.

·   Baby philosophy of science (introduction to Popper, Kuhn, Lakatos, interwoven with an introduction to the history of astronomy from Ptolemy to Newton).

At the upper level: 

·   Introduction to Probability Theory

·   Philosophy of Perception and Mind

·   Introduction to Philosophy of Science (I use a selection of articles from Curd and Cover (1998):  Philosophy of Science: The Central Issues and the example of planetary astronomy using Cohen (1985):  The Birth of a New Physics.)

·   Philosophy of Quantum Physics and Spacetime. (One way I teach this is to use Maudlin (2002).  Quantum Non-Locality and Relativity. Another way is to use Bell’s argument as a challenge to Reichenbach’s principle of common, and quantum non-locality and quantum “interference” as a challenge to our naïve understanding of space and time, thereby motivating a brief sojourn into the philosophy of spacetime.)